Glossary

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Specific and individualized instructional, environmental and assessment strategies required for a student to meet curriculum expectations for a grade/course. Examples of accommodations include: extra time for tests/assignments, scribing of answers, use of assistive technology, preferential seating, chunking of information, frequent breaks and human resources. Specific accommodations are also permitted for provincial EQAO assessments. EQAO distributes guidelines yearly, regarding the permitted accommodations.

A diagnosed medical condition of damage to the brain, resulting from a traumatic or non-traumatic injury, occurring after birth. Traumatic brain injuries involve an external force, like a fall, hit or motor vehicle accident. Non-traumatic brain injuries could result from loss of oxygen, a brain lesion, toxins or illness like meningitis. Temporary or permanent cognitive, emotional, behavioural or physical impairments are symptoms of acquired brain injuries. Acquired brain injuries do not include degenerative conditions like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s Diseases or Multiple Sclerosis (MS), nor congenital conditions like Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).

Any piece of equipment that is specifically designed for those with disabilities and would not be used for those without disabilities, like wheelchairs, standers, large scale switches/mice, etc.

An area of student need based on his/her demonstrated verbal, non-verbal or physical actions.

A diagnosed condition, related to the numerous neurological problems that can result when a child is exposed to alcohol before birth.

In response to a student’s need, individualized alternative programming is developed and taught for the acquisition of knowledge and skills that are not specifically part of the Ontario curriculum. Examples of alternative programs may include: speech remediation, social skills, self-help/personal skills and/or personal care programs. Alternative programming is individualized and documented on a student’s IEP. Alternative programming goals are assessed, communicated at reporting periods and regularly revised.

School board generated report card for the reporting of Alternative Program Learning Expectations, used for students who are only working on Alternative Programming goals. Some boards use the Provincial Report Card Addendum to report on Alternative Programming.

A diagnosed genetic condition that mainly affects the nervous system. Related characteristics include delayed development, intellectual deficits, severe communication problems and difficulty with movement and stability (ataxia). Symptoms are apparent by six to twelve months of age. Many with Angelman Syndrome also have seizures or epilepsy, and an abnormally small head (microcephaly).

An area of student need, based on his/her demonstrated behaviour.

A reasonable overall goal for each modified subject and/or alternative program, determined from the student’s current level of achievement, which the student can reasonably attain in the course of the year.
A strategy often used with ABA methods or behaviour modification to record and later analyze what occurred prior to the behaviour being targeted (antecedents), the actual behaviour and the outcome/reinforcer (consequence). Consequence in ABC tracking does not usually mean the discipline measure put into place following a behaviour, unless its function is the reinforcing element to the behaviour.

A diagnosed condition involving heightened feelings of tension and worry, often resulting in physical symptoms, behaviours and distortions in thinking.

An area of student need, involving frequent worry and nervousness.

A systematic and individualized method of teaching based on principles of learning and behaviour, to reduce undesirable and increase adaptive behaviour. The ABA process begins defining the behaviour to be changed, which is then specifically tracked with antecedents and reinforcers of the behaviour. ABC tracking sheets are often utilized and analysis of the tracking helps to develop specific strategies to develop shape the desired outcome. ABA can be implemented in schools by teachers and school teams.

An area of student need, based on his/her speech pronunciation.

One of the three Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV), and one of the five conditions of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) category. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is characterized by a social interaction impairment, limited or preoccupying interests and difficulty with non-verbal communication skills. Some with Asperger’s may refer to themselves as “Aspies”.

Assistive Technology (AT) is any piece of technology that helps a student with or without a disability to increase or maintain his/her level of functioning. These often include lap tops with specialized programs, like speech to text, text to speech, graphic organizers and word prediction software.

An area of student need of any deliberate student absence from school, often referred to as truancy and/or chronic absenteeism that is not due to legitimate illness.

A diagnosed condition that is life long. The characteristics of AD/HD include inattention, impulsivity and over-activity problems. The condition affects somewhere between five to eight percent of children still in school.

An area of student need, involving difficulty with maintaining concentration, especially on non-preferred activities, while ignoring distractions.

Communication using pictures, symbols or voice output devices to augment or act as an alternative to a student’s current or previous communication.

A formal exceptionality, identified by an Identification Placement and Review Committee (IPRC), in the category of Communication. Incorporates a diagnosed group of three specific psychological conditions: Asperger’s Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); and Autistic Disorder.

One of the three Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV), and one of the five conditions of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) category. Autistic Disorder is characterized by severe impairment in social interaction, communication (could be non-verbal) and repetitive and restrictive patterns of behaviour that are non-functional.

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